Eye defects and/or deficiencies are a common condition that affects a considerably large percentage of people across board. Most people develop eye defects at some point in their life due to numerous factors one of which could be lifestyle habits.

Depending on the severity, some eye problems may require special care while others may either relieve the sufferer without any medical intervention or can be easily treated at home.

Notwithstanding what side of the divide you belong, there are few things you can do going forward to help get your eye health back on track. We discuss some of the common eye defects below:

  1. Myopia: Also referred to as nearsightedness is a common eye condition in which one can see objects at close range but the same object becomes blurry when looked at from a distance. If you experience this, chances are that you are myopic. Studies have identified the structure of the eye to be the major cause of myopia. Common signs and symptoms include headaches, eye fatigue and/or eye strain. Myopia can, however, be managed and/or corrected with the use of glasses/ contacts or through surgery. 
  • Hyperopia: Popularly referred to as farsightedness, hyperopia is simply the opposite of myopia. With hyperopia, the sufferer is only able to see objects from a distance very clearly. The closer he/she gets to the object, writing or image, the blurrier it gets. It is often generic but a larger percentage of children who get it from their parents outgrow it. The use of contacts, lenses, glasses and correction surgeries are also applicable treatment options for Hyperopia.
  • Astigmatism: Astigmatism literarily means one’s eyes are not completely round. Usually, our eyes are shaped round allowing for lights to bend evenly when they come into it in other to give us a clear vision. In situations where this is not the case, objects may appear blurry when looked at from a distance. Common symptoms include blurry vision, eye strain and/or fatigue, etc. As with other eye defects, correction can also be effected with the use of glasses or contacts.
  • Presbyopia: This is usually characterized by the inability for one to clearly see objects at close range. Available treatment options include the use of contact lenses, LASIK – laser eye surgery, reading glasses, etc.

Other eye defects which could in some cases arise as symptom from underlying conditions include;

  • Eyestrain: Just like any other part of the human body, the eyes also get tired when worked for long without rest. Eyestrains usually happen when the eyes are being overused. This could be as a result of one reading for hours and/or working at a computer for long. 

Peradventure you experience eyestrains, take time off to rest your eyes and if it persists, please present at the hospital to ensure it not another problem.

  • Night Blindness: Do you have troubles seeing at night? Or experience difficulty finding your way in dark places? If yes, it’s likely you have night blindness as these are some of the common symptoms. Usually, factors such as vitamin A deficiency, as well as other medical conditions e.g. cataracts and keratoconus can also cause different types of night blindness. If you have night blindness, you will need to be more careful especially when in the dark. 
  •  Amblyopia: This is an eye condition that affects all age groups and hardly affects both eyes. It usually occurs when one eye doesn’t develop properly. Symptoms amblyopia presents include weak vision in the eye affected and unstable movement. Treatment for amblyopia includes corrective glasses and/or contact lenses. When detected early enough and treated, it helps avert possible lifelong vision problems that would have been developed otherwise.  
  • Strabismus and Nystagmus: Also commonly referred to as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is an eye condition characterized by the eyes not being aligned when looking at something. It is one of the defects that require specialist care for correction.

On the other hand, Nystagmus is characterized with the eyes of the sufferer jiggling all the time on its own. Available treatment would usually feature vision therapy to strengthen the eyes and or surgery in severe cases.

  • Colorblindness: Colorblindness is usually characterized with the inability for one to differentiate between colors or effectively identify colors. If you experience this, you just may be colorblind. Medically, color blindness is caused as a result of the cone cells (color cells) in the eye being completely absent or not functional. In very extreme but rare cases, sufferers may only be able to see in shades of grey.
  1. Uveitis: Uveitis is a term used to categorize a group of diseases known to cause inflammation of the middle layer of the eye (Uvea). It is a chronic condition that not only harms eye tissues but can also lead to total blindness. Symptoms it usually presents include blurred vision, eye pain, eye redness, etc.  Treatments available vary depending on the type and/or nature of uveitis.
  2. Dry Eyes: Surprisingly, this happens when your eyes are unable to produce quality tears. Although in rare cases, extreme dryness can cause some form of vision impairment. It also presents a burning feeling in the eyes. Some treatment options include:
  • The use of special eye drops.
  • Using humidifiers in your home and nutritional supplements.

Retina Disorders: The retina is a thin liner that lines the back of the eye on the inside. It is made up of cells that receive images and pass on to the brain. There are different types of retinal disorders which include diabetic retinopathy-damage to the retina caused by diabetes, retinal detachment, etc.

When you experience an eye defect, you should consult your doctor as in some cases, using drugs or lenses prescribed for another may worsen the already existing condition.

Source: WebMD

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